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Biruta is also referenced in the letters from Rib-Hadda, king of Byblos (also known as Jbeil). the city was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Macedonian Seleucid monarchy.The oldest settlement was on an island in the river that progressively silted up. This name was taken in 1934 for the archaeological journal published by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the American University of Beirut. Beirut was soon rebuilt on a more conventional Hellenistic plan and renamed Laodicea in Phoenicia (Greek: The modern city overlies the ancient one, and little archaeology was carried out until after the end of the civil war in 1991.Henri Fleisch also found an Emireh point amongst material from the site, which has now disappeared beneath buildings.Beirut V, or Nahr Beirut (Beirut River), was discovered by Dillenseger and said to be in an orchard of mulberry trees on the left bank of the river, near the river mouth, and to be close to the railway station and bridge to Tripoli.Another explanation is that the city was named after the Phoenician daughter of Adonis and Aphrodite, Beroe.Excavations in the downtown area have unearthed layers of Phoenician, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Crusader and Ottoman remains.One site was behind the parking lot of the Byblos Cinema and showed collapsed walls, pits, floors, charcoal, pottery and flints.The other, overlooking a cliff west of the Rivoli Cinema, was composed of three layers resting on limestone bedrock.

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Beirut II, or Umm el Khatib, was suggested by Burkhalter to have been south of Tarik el Jedideh, where P. Gigues discovered a Copper Age flint industry at around 100 metres (328 feet) above sea level. Beirut III, Furn esh Shebbak or Plateau Tabet, was suggested to have been located on the left bank of the Beirut River. Gigues discovered a series of Neolithic flint tools on the surface along with the remains of a structure suggested to be a hut circle.

Another suggested port or dry dock was claimed to have been discovered ~1 kilometre (0.62 miles) to the west, in 2011 by a team of Lebanese archaeologists from the Directorate General of Antiquities of Lebanese University.

Controversy arose on 26 June 2012 when authorization was given by Lebanese Minister of Culture Gaby Layoun for a private company called Venus Towers Real Estate Development Company to destroy the ruins (archaeological site BEY194) in the 0 million construction project of three skyscrapers and a garden behind Hotel Monroe in downtown Beirut.

Fragments of blades and broad flakes were recovered from the first layer of black soil, above which some Bronze Age pottery was recovered in a layer of grey soil.

Pieces of Roman pottery and mosaics were found in the upper layer.

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  2. Several prehistoric archaeological sites were discovered within the urban area of Beirut, revealing flint tools of sequential periods dating from the Middle.

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