According to the Indian census of 2001, there were 30,803,747 speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up 93.2% of the total number of Malayalam speakers in India, and 96.7% of the total population of the state.There were a further 701,673 (2.1% of the total number) in Karnataka, 557,705 (1.7%) in Tamil Nadu and 406,358 (1.2%) in Maharashtra.This means, that the Malayalam which is spoken does not differ from the written variant. Malayalam literature includes the 14th century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar), whose works mark the dawn of both modern Malayalam language and indigenous Keralite poetry. He would be the eldest maternal uncle of the family as well. However, the consent of the eldest female member of the family was taken before implementing the decisions.The Triumvirate of poets (Kavithrayam: Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon and Ulloor S. Vasudevan Nair and non Jnanpith awardees like Vaikom Muhammad Basheer have made valuable contributions to the Malayalam literature. The members of the Tharavadu consisted of mother, daughters, sons, sisters and brothers. This eldest female member would be his maternal grandmother, own mother, mother's sister, his own sister or a sister through his maternal lineage.
As of 2013, there were an estimated 1.6 million ethnic Malayali expatriates worldwide.Malayali cultural genesis can be traced to their membership in a well-defined historical region known as Tamilakam, encompassing the Chera, Chola, and Pandya kingdoms and southern coastal Karnataka.The Malayali live in an historic area known as the Malabar coast, which for thousands of years has been a major centre of the international spice trade, operating at least from the Roman era with Ptolemy documenting it on his map of the world in 150AD.In 2017, a detailed study of the evolution of the Singapore Malayalee community over a period of more than 100 years was published as a book: From Kerala to Singapore: Voices of the Singapore Malayalee Community.It is believed to be the first in-depth study of the presence of a NRI Malayalee community outside of Kerala. Malayalam is derived from old Tamil and Sanskrit in the 6th century.For cultural purposes Malayalam and Sanskrit formed a language known as Manipravalam, where both languages were used in an alternating style. Vilanilam, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Kerala; Sunny Luke, medical scientist and former professor of Medical Biotechnology at Adelphi University, New York; and Antony Palackal, professor of Sociology at the Loyola College of Social Sciences in Thiruvananthapuram, have edited the book, besides making other contributions to it.Malayalam is the only among the major Dravidian languages without diglossia. The oldest literature works in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated between the 9th century and 11th century. Mukundan, and Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy, whose 1996 semi-autobiographical bestseller Kerala remains a fascinating riddle for the Indian diaspora, especially the younger generations - World Malayali Council with its sister organisation, International Institute for Scientific and Academic Collaboration (IISAC) has come out with a comprehensive book on Kerala titled ‘Introduction to Kerala Studies,’ specially intended for the Malayali diaspora across the globe. Tharavadu is a system of joint family practised by Malayalis, especially castes Nairs, Ezhava, Thiyyas and other prominent religious groups. The Tharavadu was administered by the Karanavar, the oldest male member of the family.Of the total 33,066,392 Malayalam speakers in India in 2001, 33,015,420 spoke the standard dialects, 19,643 spoke the Yerava dialect and 31,329 spoke non-standard regional variations like Eranadan.As per the 1991 census data, 28.85% of all Malayalam speakers in India spoke a second language and 19.64% of the total knew three or more languages.Parameswara Iyer) are recognized for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics and towards a more lyrical mode. The fathers and husbands had very minimal role to play in the affairs of the Tharavadu. Since the lineage was through the female members, the birth of a daughter was always welcomed.In 19th century Chavara Kuriakose Elias, the founder of Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and Congregation of Mother of Carmel congregations, contribute different streams in the Malayalam Literature. Chavara's contribution to Malayalam literature includes, Chronicles, Poems – athmanuthapam (compunction of the soul), Maranaveettil Paduvanulla Pana (Poem to sing in the bereaved house) and Anasthasiayude Rakthasakshyam – and other Literary works . Each Tharavadu also has a Para Devatha (clan deity) revered by those in the particular Tharavadu. Kerala's society is less patriarchical than the rest of India.